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(IAAC) Obj: Abell 1656 (galaxy cluster) - Inst: 17.5" f/4.5 Newtonian



Observer: Steve Gottlieb
Skill level: Advanced
Date of Observation: 1990-March
Location: Northern California, USA
Site classification: rural
Limiting magnitude: 6.5
Seeing: 
Moon up: no
Instrument: 17.5" f/4.5 Newtonian reflector
Magnification: 220x, 280x
Filters used: None
Object: Abell 1656 (Coma Cluster)
Category: Cluster of Galaxies (*88* observed!)
Constellation: Com
Data: mag 11 (brtest 11.8)  size 4o(!)
RA/DE: 13h00m  +27o59m
Description:
I went through Abell 1656 in March 1990 with my 17.5" f/4.5 over a few
nights (naked-eye limit ~6.5) and recorded 88 galaxies at 220x and 280x.
Some of these are a couple of degrees from the central core region and may
be part of the extended Coma supercluster.  At that time, I verified the
descriptions and identifications using the POSS at UC Berkeley but the more
precise separations given in the notes were more recently added using GSC.

There is also a 15th magnitude stellar planetary H4-1 = PK 49+88.1 which is
superimposed on the cluster background 20' S of N4874.

Steve Gottlieb
*********************************************************

N4692 = U07967 = M+05-30-086
12 47.9 +27 13
17.5: fairly faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located 7' NNW of
mag 8.0 SAO 82502.  Three mag 13.5-14 stars forming an equilateral triangle
cradle the galaxy off the SW, S and SE sides.

N4728 = M+05-30-098 = Z159-087
12 50.5 +27 26
17.5: faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is 3.3'
SSW.  This outlying member of Abell 1656 forms a trio with N4728A = U07992
2' ESE and N4728B 3.5' NNE.  N4745 lies 13' E.  Located 18' SE of 30 Comae
Berenices (V = 5.8) and 17' SW of 31 Comae (V = 4.9).  CGCG magnitude
=15.6z is too faint.

N4745 = M+05-30-105A = Z159-094
12 51.4 +27 25
17.5: faint, small, round, well-defined edge to halo, no concentration.  A
mag 14 star is 1.4' ENE of center.  The view is hampered by 31 Comae
Berenices located 8.0' NNE and mag 9 SAO 82532 5.3' SSW.  N4728 is at the
edge of the field 13' W.  There were several brief impressions of an
extremely faint companion galaxy 1.7' NNW (N4745B).

N4745B = M+05-30-105
12 51.4 +27 28
17.5: only glimpsed momentarily on several occassions 1.7' NW of N4745.
Appeared virtually stellar and no details were detectable although this is
a thin edge-on N-S on POSS.

N4788 = M+05-30-123 = Z159-112
12 54.2 +27 18
17.5: faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Located 1.3' E of a mag 10.5
star.  N4798 lies 10.9' NE.

N4789 = U08028 = M+05-30-124
12 54.3 +27 04
17.5: fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S.  A mag 10 star is
just 40" N of center.  Forms a pair with close N4787 3.0' W.  Located 18'
NNE of mag 6.9 SAO 82554.

N4798 = U08038 = M+05-31-004
12 54.9 +27 25
17.5: fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, very weak
concentration.  A mag 14 star is 1.0' S of center and a mag 10 star 7.5' E.
In field with N4788 10.9' SW, N4807 9.9' NE and IC 3900 14.5' SE.

M+05-31-007 = Z160-015
12 55.5 +27 39
17.5: very faint, extremely faint.  A mag 11 star is just 1.2' N and a mag
14.5 star is 50" SSE of center.  Picked up 8.1' N of N4807.

N4807 = U08049 = M+05-31-006
12 55.5 +27 31
17.5: fairly faint, round, 0.8' diameter, bright core.  A mag 13 star is
3.2' NNW.  Member of Abell 1656 with N4798 9.9' SW and M+05-31-007 8.1' N.

IC3900 = M+05-31-009
12 55.7 +27 15
17.5: fairly faint, very small, round, high surface brightness, weakly
concentrated, occasional stellar nucleus.  On line with a mag 13 star and a
mag 10.5 star 1.3' S and 3.1' S of center, respectively.  Easily picked up
14.5' SW of N4798.

N4816 = U08057 = M+05-31-010
12 56.2 +27 45
17.5: fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 E-W, brighter core, diffuse halo.
Confusing appearance at low power as a mag 13.7 star is close off the NE
edge 34" from center creating the appearance of elongation.  Also forms a
close pair with Z160-023 1.8' ENE.  The three objects are well resolved at
280x. Located 14' E of mag 8 SAO 82565.

Z160-023
12 56.3 +27 45
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round, no details visible.  Picked
up 1.8' ENE of much brighter N4816.

Z160-027
12 56.4 +27 50
17.5: faint, very small, round, 0.3' diameter.  Located 1.8' WSW of a mag
12.5 star and 5.8' NW of mag 9.5 SAO 82578.  N4816 lies 6.0' SW.

N4819 = U08060 = M+05-31-014
12 56.5 +26 59
17.5: brighter of pair with N4821 2.0' S.  Fairly faint, slightly elongated,
1.0'x0.8', broad concentration, brighter center but no nucleus.  A mag 13.5
star is 3.6' SW.  N4819 lies 12' NNE.

N4821 = M+05-31-015
12 56.5 +26 57
17.5: fainter and smaller of pair with N4819 2.0' N.  Faint, small,
slightly elongated 4:3 N-S, no concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.5' WSW
and a mag 13.5 is 3.5' W (this star forms the western vertex of an
isosceles triangle with N4821 and N4819).  N4827 lies 13.8' N.

Anon
12 56.6 +27 32
17.5: extremely faint, very small, round, 0.2' diameter, almost visible
continuously with averted at 280x.  Forms a near isosceles trapezoid with
two mag 14 stars 5'-6' W and a mag 13.5 star 4.4' SSW, N4839 11.4' ESE.
Picked up by drifting 14.4' E from N4807. Not listed in CGCG or MCG and
incorrectly identified in the RNGC as N4824.

N4827 = U08065 = M+05-31-016
12 56.7 +27 11
17.5: fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, sharply concentrated
with a faint halo and a very small bright core.  The N4819/N4820 pair is
12.0' SSW.

M+05-31-023 = Z160-037
12 57.2 +27 28
17.5: extremely faint, very small, round.  Forms the SW vertex of a near
equilateral triangle with two mag 14 stars 1.5' N and 1.6' ENE.  Picked up
3.8' SW of N4839.

N4839 = U08070 = M+05-31-025
12 57.4 +27 30
17.5: fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.7', weak
even concentration to a brighter core.  Lies midway between a mag 11.5 star
2.5' NE and a mag 14 star 2.4' SW.  Forms a close pair with N4842 (double
system) 2.6' E.  In the field are N4840 7.0' N and M+05-31-023 3.8' SW.  An
anonymous galaxy was picked up 11.4' WNW.  This is a double system with a
companion superimposed 0.4' SW of center (not resolved).

N4840 = M+05-31-029
12 57.5 +27 37
17.5: faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter, symmetrical appearance with an
even concentration.  Member of the Abell 1656 with N4839 7.0' S.

N4841 = U08072 = M-05-31-026
12 57.5 +28 29
17.5: very close double system located 3.1' NNE of mag 9.5 SAO 82582.  The
SW component (N4841A) is fairly faint, small, round, 35" diameter.  Even
concentration with a bright core and faint stellar nucleus.  In contact
with N4841B at the NE end (separation of 34") although clearly resolved at
280x.

N4841B = U08073 = M+05-31-027
12 57.6 +28 29
17.5: fainter member of double system with N4841A.  Faint, small, round,
30" diameter.  Similar size as N4841A attached at the SW end (34"
separation) but lower surface brightness with a very weak concentration and
no core although a faint stellar nucleus is visible.

N4842 = M+05-31-030
12 57.6 +27 30
17.5: very faint, very small, very small bright core, possible stellar
nucleus.  Forms a close pair with N4839 just 2.6' W.  At 280x, this galaxy
is resolved into a double system with an almost stellar companion (N4842B)
30" S of center.  The close double 1699 = 8.6/8.6 at 1.6" separation lies
14.4' E.

N4842B = M+05-31-031
12 57.6 +27 29
17.5: this object is an extremely faint and small companion to N4842 just
30" S of center.  Resolved at 280x although appears virtually stellar.

N4849 = U08086 = M+05-31-044 = IC 3935
12 58.2 +26 24
17.5: fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, weak even
concentration down to a brighter core.  A faint double star is 7' N with
components mag 12.3 and 13.6 at 16".  Forms a close pair with IC 838 1.9'
NNE (not seen).

IC3943 = Z160-069
12 58.6 +28 07
17.5: very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Located between two mag
13 and 15 stars 6' E of the N4858/N4860 pair.

N4853 = U08092 = 2Z 67 = M+05-31-048
12 58.6 +27 36
17.5: fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  Forms a pair with N4854
5.2' NE.  Located 8' NNW of 1699 = 8.6/8.6 at 1.6".

IC3946 = M+05-31-050 = Z160-210
12 58.8 +27 49
17.5: very faint, small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE.  A mag 14 star is 1.1' NW.
Located in Abell 1656 with IC 3949 2.1' NE and IC 3947 1.7' SSE.

N4854 = M+05-31-049
12 58.8 +27 40
17.5: very faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE. N4853 lies 5.2' SW.

IC3947 = Z160-211
12 58.9 +27 47
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round.  Nearby galaxies include IC
3946 1.7' NNW and IC 3949 3.0' NNE.

IC3949 = U08096 = M+05-31-052
12 58.9 +27 50
17.5: very faint, fairly small, edge-on SW-NE, weak concentration.  A mag
12.5 star is 1.5' N.  Located in a rich section of Abell 1656 with IC 3946
2.1' SW, IC 3960 2.9' NE and IC 3947 3.0' SSW.

N4858 = M+05-31-051
12 59.0 +28 07
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round, requires averted.  Forms a
very close pair with N4860 34" NE.

N4859 = U08097 = M+05-31-053
12 59.0 +26 49
17.5: faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, 0.6'x0.5', very weak
concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.8' SE.

Z160-214
12 59.0 +28 14
17.5: very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Located 7.0' W of a mag
8.1 SAO 82596.  N4860 lies 6' S.

IC3955 = Z160-216
12 59.1 +28 00
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round.  Located 2' NW of the
N4864/N4867 pair and 7' WNW of N4872 in a rich portion of Abell 1656.

IC3957 = M+05-31-060
12 59.1 +27 46
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round.  In a close trio with IC
3959 1.0' N and IC 3963 1.4' ENE.

IC3959 = M+05-31-059
12 59.1 +27 47
17.5: very faint, very small, round.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.6' NNW.  In a
close trio with IC 3957 1.0' S and IC 3963 1.3' SE, also IC 3947 lies 3.5'
W.  Located in a rich section of Abell 1656.

IC3960 = M+05-31-055
12 59.1 +27 51
17.5: extremely faint, very small, round.  Located 8.8' SW of N4874 in the
core of Abell 1656.  Forms a pair with IC 3949 2.9' SW.

N4860 = M+05-31-054
12 59.1 +28 07
17.5: faint, small, round, bright core.  Forms a close pair with N4858 34"
SW.  IC 4943 lies 5' W and N4865 4.2' SE almost at the midpoint on line
with mag 7.2 SAO 82595 7.2' SE.

IC3963 = M+05-31-061
12 59.2 +27 46
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, elongated E-W.  Third of three in
equilateral triangle with IC 3959 1.4' WNW and IC 3957 1.4' WSW.

M+05-31-063 = Z160-223
12 59.2 +28 05
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round.  Forms a close pair with
N4865 1' NE in the core of Abell 1656.

N4864 = M+05-31-058
12 59.2 +27 59
17.5: faint, very small, round.  Forms a double system with N4867 off the
SE edge just 40" from center and IC 3955 is 2' NW.  Located in the core of
Abell 1656 5.0' W of N4874.

N4865 = U08100 = M+05-31-064
12 59.3 +28 05
17.5: faint, small, slightly elongated.  Located in the core of Abell 1656
3.1' WNW of mag 7.1 SAO 82595 which detracts from viewing.  Nearby are
M+05-31-063 1' SW and N4860 4.2' NW.

N4867 = M+05-31-062
12 59.3 +27 58
17.5: very faint, extremely small, round.  Forms a double system with N4864
off the NW edge 40" from center.  Located 4.5' W of N4874 in the core of
Abell 1656.

N4869 = M+05-31-065
12 59.4 +27 55
17.5: faint, small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is attached
at the NW edge 16" from the center and a mag 12 star is 2.0' NNE.  Located
in the core of Abell 1656 4.0' SW of N4874 with a number of galaxies near
including N4875 3' ESE, IC 3973 3' SE and N4872 3.2' NE.

IC3973 = Z160-228
12 59.5 +27 53
17.5: very faint, very small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE.  Located in the
central core of Abell 1656 just 4.6' S of N4874.  Also first of three on a
SW-NE line with N4875 2.1' NE and N4876 3.5' ENE.  IC 3976 lies 2.1' S.

IC3976 = Z160-226
12 59.5 +27 51
17.5: very faint, extremely small, elongated NW-SE.  Located in core of
Abell 1656 6.7' SSW of N4874.  IC 3973 lies 2.0' N.

N4871 = M+05-31-066
12 59.5 +27 57
17.5: companion of N4874 in the core of Abell 1656.  Located 1.3' W of the
center of N4874.  Very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 12 star lies
1.2' S.  Numerous galaxies near including N4873 1.8' NNE and N4872 1.1' SE.

N4873 = M+05-31-069
12 59.5 +27 59
17.5: close companion of N4874 in the core of Abell 1656.  Very faint, very
small, slightly elongated, very small bright core.  Located 1.6' NNW of
N4874.  Nearby galaxies include N4871 1.7' SSW and N4864/N4867 pair 4.3' W.

N4872 = M+05-31-068
12 59.6 +27 57
17.5: this is the closest companion of N4874 just off the SW edge of N4874.
Very faint, very small, irregularly round, small bright core.  A mag 12
star lies 1.3' SW.  Located just 52" SW of the center of N4874.  A swarm of
galaxies in the field with N4871 1.1' NW, N4873 2.2' N and N4875 2.5' SSE.

N4874 = U08103 = M+05-31-070
12 59.6 +27 58
17.5: second brightest galaxy in the core of Abell 1656.  Fairly faint,
fairly small, slightly elongated, bright core.  Located 6.4' S of mag 7.2
SAO 82595.  A mag 12 star lies 2.5' WSW.  Surrounded by a halo of faint
galaxies including N4872 52" SSW, N4871 1.3' W, N4873 1.6' NNW, IC 3998
2.3' ENE.

N4875 = Z160-232
12 59.6 +27 54
17.5: companion of N4874 in the core of Abell 1656.  Located 3.1' S of
N4874.  Appears extremely faint, extremely small, slightly elongated.
Second of three and located between IC 3973 2.1' SW and N4876 1.5' E.  A
mag 12 star is 2.7' NW.

Anon
12 59.7 +27 58
17.5: close companion on the E side of N4874 in the central core of Abell
1656.  Extremely faint, extremely small, round.  Located just 1.9' E of the
center of N4874.  Forms a pair with IC 3998 1.1' NNE.

M+05-31-074 = Z160-079
12 59.7 +27 42
17.5: very faint, elongated N-S, even surface brightness.  Located 17' S of
N4874.

N4876 = M+05-31-073
12 59.7 +27 55
17.5: very faint, very small, elongated N-S.  Located in the core of Abell
1656 3.4' SE of N4874.  Third of three with N4875 1.5' WSW and IC 3973 3.4'
SE.

IC3998 = Z160-236
12 59.8 +27 58
17.5: located in the central core of Abell 1656 between N4874 and N4889.
Extremely faint, extremely small, round.  Forms a close pair with difficult
Goodwin #458 1.1' SSE.  Located 2.6' ENE of N4874 and a swarm of galaxies
are in the field surrounding N4874.  Also located 4.7' due W of N4889.

N4883 = Z160-237
12 59.9 +28 02
17.5: located in the central core of Abell 1656 4.4' NW of N4889 and 6.4'
NE of N4874.  Very faint, very small, round.  Mag 7.2 SAO 82595 5.4' WNW
hinders observation of this galaxy.

N4881 = U08106 = M+05-31-075
13 00.0 +28 15
17.5: faint, very small, round, bright core.  Located 5' E of mag 8.1 SAO
82596.  Forms a pair with N4895 5.2' SE.  Located 15' N of the central core
region of Abell 1656.

IC4011 = Z160-242
13 00.1 +28 00
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round, barely non-stellar, visible
with averted vision only.  Located 1.6' N of N4889 in the dense central
core of Abell 1656 with numerous galaxies nearby including N4886 1.1' SSW
and N4883 2.9' NW.

N4886 = M+05-31-076
13 00.1 +27 59
17.5: this close companion to N4889 appears very faint, very small,
slightly elongated.  Located just 1.0' NW of the core of Abell 1656.
Nearby galaxies surrounding N4889 includes IC 4011 1.1' NNE, N4883 3.4' NW
and IC 4021 4' NE.

N4889 = U08110 = M+05-31-077
13 00.1 +27 59
17.5: largest and brightest galaxy in Abell 1656.  N4889 and N4874 9.2' W
are both surrounded by a cloud of faint galaxies.  Moderately bright,
fairly small, oval E-W, bright core.  Several companions near including
N4886 1.0' NW, N4894 1.9' ESE, N4898 2.4' SE which are all collinear with
N4889 and IC 4011 1.6' N.

N4892 = U08108 = M+05-31-078
13 00.1 +26 54
17.5: very faint, thin edge-on SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.2'.  Followed by two mag
14-14.5 stars with separation 39" oriented SSW-NNE and parallel to the
major axis (closer star is 0.6' E of center).  N4859 lies 14.6' SW.

N4895A = Z160-245
13 00.1 +28 10
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round.  Forms a pair with N4895
2.7' NE.  Located just N of the central core of Abell 1656.

IC4021 = M+05-31-080
13 00.2 +28 02
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round.  Located 4.1' NNE of N4889
in the core of Abell 1656 and similar to IC 4026 1.6' ENE.

N4894 = Z160-247
13 00.3 +27 58
17.5: located in the core of Abell 1656 just 1.9' SE of N4889.  Extremely
faint, very small, round.  Forms a very close pair with N4898 45" SE.  This
is the third of four on line with N4889 and N4886 to the NE.

N4895 = U08113 = M+05-31-081
13 00.3 +28 12
17.5: fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE.  Nearby
companions are N4881 5.2' NW and N4895A 2.7' SW.  Located just N of the
central core of Abell 1656 and 14' N of N4889.

N4898 = M+05-31-082
13 00.3 +27 57
17.5: located in the central core of Abell 1656 cluster 2.5' SE of
brightest member N4889.  Faint, very small, slightly elongated.  This is
the last of four on a line with N4894 just 45" NW, N4889 2.5' NW and N4886
3.5' NW.

IC4026 = Z160-250
13 00.4 +28 03
17.5: located in the core of Abell 1656 and form a pair with IC 4021 1.6'
WSW.  Extremely faint, extremely small, round.

IC4040 = M+05-31-085
13 00.6 +28 03
17.5: very faint, small, elongated NW-SE.  Located in the core of Abell
1656 6.9' NE of N4889 with IC 4045 3.1' NE and N4908 3.1' ESE.

Z160-251
13 00.6 +28 09
17.5: very faint, very small, very elongated NNW-SSE.  A mag 14.5 star is
at the S end.  Located 3' WSW of N4907.

IC4041 = M+05-31-086
13 00.7 +28 00
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, round.  Located in the core of
Abell 1656 7.3' ENE of N4889.  Nearby galaxies include IC 4042 1.6' SE and
IC 4051 2.9' E.

IC4042 = Z160-255 = M+05-31-086
13 00.7 +27 58
17.5: very faint, extremely small, round.  Located in the core of Abell
1656 7.6' E of N4889.  Nearby galaxies include IC 4051 3.2' NE and IC 4041
1.6' NNW.

N4906 = Z160-253
13 00.7 +27 55
17.5: very faint, very small, round.  A mag 14 star is just 25" W of
center.  Located 7.6' SE of N4889.  IC 4041 lies 4.4' due N and IC 4042
2.9' NE.

IC4045 = M+05-31-088
13 00.8 +28 05
17.5: very faint, extremely small, slightly elongated, very small bright
core.  Located in the central region of Abell 1656 with N4907 5' N, IC 4040
3' SW and N4908 3' SSE.

N4907 = M+05-31-089
13 00.8 +28 09
17.5: faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, even surface brightness.  A
mag 13 star is just off the S end.  Nearby galaxies include Z160-251 3' WSW
and IC 4045 5' S.

N4908 = M+05-31-090
13 00.8 +28 02
17.5: located on the E side of the core of Abell 1656.  Faint, small,
slightly elongated.  A mag 15 star is attached at the NW edge.  Nearby
cluster galaxies include IC 4045 3' NNW, IC 4051 2.2' SSE and IC 4040 3' WNW.

IC4051 = U08129 = M+05-31-090
13 00.9 +28 00
17.5: faint, small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  Located in the
central region of Abell 1656 with N4908 2.5' N and IC 4042 2.5' SW.

N4911 = U08128 = M+05-31-093
13 00.9 +27 48
17.5: fairly faint, fairly small, oval WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  A mag
12 star is 2' NW.  Forms a close double with the very faint galaxy
M+05-31-094 at the SW edge.

Z160-261
13 01.0 +27 54
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small, averted vision only.  Located on a
line between N4906 4' W and N4921 6' E.

M+05-31-096 = Z160-092
13 01.1 +27 49
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small.  Located 1.9' WNW of N4919.  In a
tight trio with Z160-093 1.0' S.

Z160-093
13 01.2 +27 48
17.5: extremely faint, extremely small.  A mag 15.5 star is close N.  This
member of Abell 1656 is located 1.6' W of N4919.  Nearby are M+05-31-096 =
Z160-092 1.0' NNW and N4911 3.3' WSW.

N4919 = U08133 = M+05-31-097
13 01.3 +27 49
17.5: situated between N4911 4.8' WSW and N4921 5.1' NNE.  Very faint, very
small, elongated NW-SE.  In a close trio with Z160-093 1.6' W and
M+05-31-096 1.9' WNW.

N4921 = U08134 = M+05-31-098
13 01.4 +27 53
17.5: fairly faint, fairly small, bright core, large low surface brightness
halo surrounded core.  This is one of the brighter members of Abell 1656
but it appears fainter than the integrated V magnitude suggests.  Nearby
are N4923 2.7' SSE and N4919 5.1' SSW.

N4923 = M+05-31-101
13 01.5 +27 51
17.5: very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a trio with
brighter N4921 2.7' NNW and N4919 is 3.9' SW.

Z160-101
13 01.8 +28 05
17.5: very faint, small, elongated E-W, low surface brightness.  A mag 15
star is involved at the W edge.  N4927 lies 6' SSE.

N4926 = U08142 = M+05-31-103
13 01.9 +27 37
13: faint, small, round.  Located 17' SSE of N4921 and 16' SE of N4911.

N4927 = M+05-31-104
13 02.0 +28 00
17.5: very faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, very small bright
core.  A mag 15 star is at the N edge 25" from center and a mag 13 star is
1.4' NE.  Z160-101 lies 6' NNW.  Located 24' E of N4889.